### Creating Circular Distribution Graphs in R (Useful for Angular Data)

Below is an example of creating circular distribution/density plots. It could be useful while exploring angular data, where, for example, the value of 360 degrees is equal to the value of 0 degree, hence a circular representation is more appropriate. In the computational biology context, this type of graphs could be useful to explore dihedral angle distribution in, say, a set of protein or nucleic acids structures, or, with some modifications, to explore distribution of a certain parameter along a circular genome.

We need the R library *circular*, so if that is not installed, install from within R using the command below:

`install.packages("circular")`

Let us create an example dataset:

`data.vector <- c(120, 125, 149, 35, 360, 245, 9, 76, 243)`

If our dataset contains negative angles, for instance, angles in the \([-180,180)\) range, we can change the representation into the \([0,360)\) range via the following line:

`data[which(data < 0)] <- 360 + data[which(data < 0)]`

Now, we can write a small function, *plotcircle*, to read a vector of angular values and produce a circular density plot visualising the distribution of those values:

```
plotcircle <- function(data, bw = 25, ...) {
library(circular)
data <- suppressWarnings(as.circular(data, control.circular = list(type = "angles",
zero = pi/2, units = "degrees", rotation = "clock")))
denscirc <- density.circular(as.circular(data), bw = bw)
plot(denscirc, points.plot = TRUE, ...)
}
```

And, here is the example visualisation of the created *data.vector* dataset:

```
plotcircle(data = data.vector, bw = 25, col = "coral", lwd = 2, xlim = c(-1.5,
1.5), ylim = c(-1.5, 1.5), main = "Example plot")
```

```
##
## Attaching package: 'circular'
##
## The following objects are masked from 'package:stats':
##
## sd, var
```

You can explore the documentation of the library *circular*, to see what modifications can be done to the above code, specifically to the *as.circular* and *density.circular* calls, to suite your specific needs.

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